Egypt Overview

Arab Republic of Egypt

جمهورية مصر العربية (Arabic)

Ǧumhūriyyat Miṣr Al-Arabiyyah

Geographic Coordinates: 30°2′N, 31°13′E
Area: Total: 1,010,408 km2 (390,121 sq mi) (29th)
Government Type: The unitary semi-presidential Republic
Capital City: Cairo
Demonym(s): Egyptian
Official Language (s): Arabic
National Language: Egyptian Arabic
Time Zone: GMT – EET (UTC+2)
Population: 95 Million
Currency: Egyptian Pound (E£) / (EGP)
Exchange Rate: $1 is 16.00 EGPs
Internet TLD: .eg, مصر.
Calling Code: +20
ISO 3166 Code: EG
Driving Side: Right
National Holiday: Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)
Legislature: House of Representatives
Layout: See Map


Egypt or the Arab Republic of Egypt is a country in Africa’s northeast corner whose territory in the Sinai Peninsula extends beyond Asia’s continental boundary.
The Gaza Strip and Israel border Egypt to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west, and the Mediterranean sea to the north.
Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, and across the Mediterranean lies Greece, Turkey, and Cyprus. However, none share a land border with Egypt.

Travel to Egypt:
Egypt is one of the most beautiful travel destinations globally. It has a history dating back more than 6,000 years; Pharaohs have ruled it, Romans, Turkish sultans, Muslim caliphs, and British and French colonizers left their distinctive marks.
The Nile River has been the gift of Egypt since the beginning of time, and much of the country’s population and sights clustered around it.
Cairo’s capital lies on both sides of the Nile River and boasts a rich history with a delightful blend of cultures among its population of 20 million.
Egypt’s most incredible sights – the Great Pyramids and Sphinx – are just outside of this city, in Giza’s township.
Another must-see in Cairo is the Egyptian Museum, filled with amazing antiquities.
In your downtime, it’s fun to wander the winding alleys and stop at the old-fashioned coffee shops (ahwas).
The Nile Valley is home to thousands of ancient monuments, and you can take a luxury cruise on the river to spend a few days exploring the antiquity en-route between Cairo and Luxor.
Luxor boasts spectacular ancient architecture, with the temples of Karnak as the centerpiece.
The complex encompasses an assortment of chambers and enclosures and a courtyard of pillars, statues, and sphinxes.
Nearby is the Valley of the Kings, where all the main Pharaoh’s tombs, are and it was here that King Tutankhamen’s grave was discovered in 1922.
Aswan is a charming frontier trading town, and no visit here would be complete without a trip to the massive Aswan High Dam, the world’s largest.
Additionally, the incredible temple ruins of Abu Simbel relocated to an island on this – the world’s largest human-made lake, should not be missed.
On the Nile River near the city, Elephantine Island has a good collection of ruins, and taking a traditional felucca sailboat to get there is widespread.
Egypt’s second-largest city is Alexandria, located at the delta of the Nile.
This grand city has a rich history, with former residents including Cleopatra, Julius Caesar, and Euclid.
Roman remains to include the Roman Amphitheatre, the enormous Pompeys Pillar, and the Catacombs of Kom ash-Shuqqafa.
The elegant Greco-Roman Museum is well worth seeing.
The Sinai Peninsula links Africa to Asia and has become a popular sun and water sport; Sharm-El-Sheikh offers fantastic scuba diving.
Dahab, to the north, is a popular hippie retreat and is laid-back and charming.
Hurghada is the main attraction along the western coastline of the Egyptian mainland and is known for its excellent coral reefs and turquoise waters, and right windsurfing conditions.

The Flag of Egypt:

Flag History

The first national flag of modern Egypt was established by a Royal Decree in 1923 when Egypt gained conditional independence from Great Britain in 1922.
The color was green with a white crescent and three stars in the middle.
In 1958, a Presidential Decree established a new flag for the United Arab Republic, which comprised a merger of Syria and Egypt.
The new flag had three colors: red, white, two green stars, and black.
The flag was rectangular, and the width was one-third of its length.
In 1972, the law was amended to change the flag.
The stars were removed from the flag and replaced by a golden hawk.
In 1984, the hawk was replaced by a golden eagle on the eagle of king Saladdin, the Ayubbid Sultan who ruled Egypt and Syria in the 12th Century, and the same king Saladdin of the Crusades.

Color Symbolism:
The red color indicates the period before the 1952 Revolution, which brought a group of army officers to power after deposing King Farouk, then King of Egypt.
This flag was a period characterized by the struggle against the British occupation of the country.
The white symbolizes the advent of the 1952 Revolution, which ended the monarchy without bloodshed.
The black color symbolizes the end of the Egyptians’ oppression at the monarchy and British colonialism.

Rules Governing the Hoisting of the Flag:
The national flag was raised on all governmental buildings.
The flag is hoisted daily on border posts and customs buildings.
It is also hoisted on Egyptian consulates and embassies overseas on the National Day and other national occasions and during the President’s visit, raising the diplomatic mission.

Penal Provisions for Contempt of the Flag:
Abusing the flag in any way is a criminal offense and is punishable under law as it implies contempt of the state’s power.
Penal provisions also govern the abuse of foreign flags or national emblems of other countries.

The National Anthem:
“Bilady, Bilady, Bilady”
My country, my country, my country
My homeland, my homeland, my homeland,
My love and my heart are for thee.
My homeland, my homeland, my homeland,
My love and my heart are for thee.
Egypt! O mother of all lands,
Thou are my hope and my ambition,
And on all people
Your Nile has countless graces.
My homeland, my homeland, my homeland,
My love and my heart are for thee.
My homeland, my homeland, my homeland,
My love and my heart are for thee.
Egypt! Most precious gem,
Ablaze on the brow of eternity!
O my homeland, be forever free,
Safe from every enemy!
My homeland, my homeland, my homeland,
My love and my heart are for thee.
My homeland, my homeland, my homeland,
My love and my heart are for thee.
Egypt, land of bounties
You are filled with ancient glory.
My purpose is to repel the enemy.
And on God, I rely on
My homeland, my homeland, my homeland,
My love and my heart are for thee.
My homeland, my homeland, my homeland,
My love and my heart are for thee.
Egypt! Noble are thy sons,
Loyal and guardians of the reins.
Be we at war or peace
we will sacrifice ourselves for you, my country.
My homeland, my homeland, my homeland,
My love and my heart are for thee.

Words and Music by Mr. Sayed Darwish.
This national anthem was used after 1979.
Before that, the National Anthem was “Walla Zaman Ya Selahy” (Oh, My Weapon) with words by Salah Shahyrn and Music by Kamal Al-Tawil.

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